BIOTECH ASIA PACIFIC 2022
Biotechnology is technology that utilizes biological systems, living organisms or components of this to develop or produce totally different product. At its simplest, biotechnology is technology supported biology - biotechnology harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and product that facilitate improve our lives and therefore the health of our planet. Biotechnology is that the use of biology to unravel issues and build helpful product. The foremost distinguished approach used is recombinant DNA technology that permits scientists to tailor an organism’s DNA at will. Biotechnology is best celebrated for its role in drugs and prescription drugs, however the science is additionally applied in different areas like genetic science, food production, and therefore the production of biofuels.
Genetic engineering is that the method of using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology to change the genetic makeup of an organism. Historically, humans have manipulated genomes indirectly by dominant breeding and choosing offspring with desired traits. It involves the direct manipulation of 1 or additional genes. Most often, a gene from other species is added to an organism's genome to allow it a desired composition. Modifications are often sequence rated by strategies like gene targeting, nuclear transplantation, transfection of synthetic chromosomes or viral insertion. Selective breeding isn't thought-about a sort of genetic engineering.
Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) may be a branch of biology that studies the structure, function and behavior of cells. All living organisms are made of cells. A cell is that the basic unit of life that's liable for living and functioning of organisms. It’s the study of structural and practical units of cells. Also, encompasses both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and has several subtopics which can embrace the study of cell metabolism, cell communication, cell cycle, organic chemistry, and cell composition. The study of cells is performed exploitation many research techniques, cell culture, and cell fractionation. These have allowed for and square measure presently being employed for discoveries and analysis concerning however cells operate, ultimately giving insight into understanding larger organisms. Knowing the elements of cells and the way cells work is prime to any or all biological sciences whereas additionally being essential for analysis in medical specialty fields like cancer, and alternative diseases. On the total, cell biology focuses on the structure and performance of a cell, from the foremost general properties shared by all cells, to the distinctive, extremely tortuous functions specific to specialized cells.
Cell therapy and gene therapy area unit are overlapping fields of biomedical research and treatment. Each therapies aim to treat, prevent, or probably cure diseases, and each approaches have the potential to alleviate the underlying explanation for genetic diseases and bought diseases. But, cell and gene therapies work differently. Genes are explained as the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes are code for the creation of all proteins in living organisms and handle as the metaphorical instructional manual for our body’s proteins. Cellular and gene therapies have the potential to lay the foundation for succeeding massive paradigm shift in drug development. Similar to the way that monoclonal antibody treatments fully altered the treatment options in some therapeutic areas, cellular and gene therapies provide the promise of treating, and, in some cases, probably solidification diseases that haven't any current commonplace of care or wherever solely symptomatic treatment was historically obtainable.
Tissue engineering is a biomedical engineering discipline that uses a combination of cells, engineering, materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to revive, maintain, improve, or replace differing types of biological tissues. Tissue engineering typically involves the utilization of cells placed on tissue scaffolds within the formation of recent viable tissue for a medical purpose however isn't restricted to applications involving cells and tissue scaffolds. Whereas it had been once categorized as a sub-field of biomaterials, having mature in scope and importance it are often thought-about as a field in its own. Mixtures of cells and materials have the flexibility to reorganize themselves supported the strength of adhesion between cells and substrate and among the assorted cell sorts gift within the tissue construct. Finally, tissue constructs should be intimately integrated into the host's vascular system so as provide to produce economical nutrient supply and waste removal.
Protein engineering is a method that is used to develop new types of proteins. This field of science is comparatively new, and original ways of combining protein elements continue to be studied and discovered by researchers. This type of engineering permits materials with specific strengths or features to be developed. Protein engineering is the design of latest enzymes or proteins with new or desirable functions. It is based upon the use of recombinant DNA technology to change amino acid sequences. The prospects for protein engineering, together with the roles of x-ray crystallography, chemical synthesis of DNA, and computer modeling of protein structure and folding, are mentioned. It is currently possible to attempt to modify various properties of proteins by combining information on crystal structure and protein chemistry with artificial gene synthesis. Such techniques supply the potential for altering protein structure and function in ways not possible by any other method.
Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology are part of the core industrial sectors, that drives the transition of the most body of manufacturing sectors like IT, pharmaceutical, chemical, automotive, textile, food/feed, agriculture and many more towards more sustainable and greener economic and environmental models. The contamination of the environment by herbicides, pesticides, solvents, various industrial byproducts (including toxic metals, radio nucleotides and metalloids) is of enormous economic and environmental significance. Biotechnology can be used to develop "green" or environmentally friendly solutions to these issues by harnessing the ability of bacteria to adapt metabolic pathways, or recruit new genes to metabolize harmful compounds into harmless byproducts. In addition to its role in cleaning-up the environment, biotechnology can be used for the production of novel compounds with each agricultural and industrial applications.
Bioprocess or fermentation technology is a very important component of most ‘old’ and ‘new’ biotechnology processes and can unremarkably involve complete living cells (microbe, mammalian or plant), organelles or enzymes as the biocatalyst, and can aim to bring about specific chemical and/or physical changes in biochemical materials derived from the medium. In order to be viable in any specific industrial context, bioprocessing should possess advantages over competing methods of production such as chemical technology. In practice, several bioprocessing techniques will be used industrially because they are the only practical way in which a specific product can be made like vaccines, antibiotics. Biochemical engineering covers the design of vessels and equipment appropriate for performing such biochemical reactions or transformations.
The tooth and its supporting tissues area unit organized with advanced three-dimensional (3D) design, together with the dental pulp with a blood provide and nerve tissues, advanced multilayer periodontium, and extremely aligned periodontic ligament (PDL). Mimicking such 3D complexity and also the multicellular interactions naturally existing in dental structures represents great challenges in dental regeneration. Recent advances have enabled the 3D printing of biocompatible materials, seed cells, and supporting parts into complex 3D functional living tissue. Furthermore, 3D bio printing is driving major innovations in regenerative medicine, giving to the field of regenerative dentistry a boost. The fabrication of scaffolds via 3D printing is already being performed extensively at the laboratory bench and in clinical trials; But , printing living cells and matrix materials along to provide tissue constructs by 3D bio printing remains limited to the regeneration of dental pulp and the tooth germ.
The area of Genetics and Molecular Biology is the study of the fundamental workings of the cell, and how cells function in the substance of an organism. Areas of current research cover a wide range of topics such as DNA replication and repair, gene regulation through chromatin structure, cell differentiation and cell signaling while development, and interaction of virulence factors and immune cells.
Biotechnology is that the field that exploits living organisms to create technological advances in various fields for the sustainable development of mankind. It has its applications within the medical moreover as agricultural sectors. The biological processes of living organisms have been used for more than 6000 years to make essential products like bread, cheese, alcohol, etc.
Following are the important applications of biotechnology:
- Nutrient Supplementation
- Abiotic Stress
- Industrial Biotechnology
- Strength Fibres
The Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Design program is geared toward designing effective new drug therapies while minimizing adverse effects. Students can receive didactic and laboratory training in the design and development of pharmacological compounds together with the disciplines of molecular and cellular pharmacology and pharmacodynamics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmaceutics and toxicology. Research in the program involves a diverse range of therapeutic areas involves cancer, cardiovascular, dermatological, immune-mediated, and neurological diseases.
Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is that the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of each chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided into three fields: structural biology, enzymology and metabolism. Most of all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed through biochemical methodology and research. Biochemistry targets on understanding the chemical basis which allows biological molecules to allow rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, successively relating greatly to the understanding of tissues and organs, additionally as organism structure and function. Biochemistry is closely associated with molecular biology that is the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena.
Immunology may be a branch of biology and medicine that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms. Immunology charts, measures, and contextualizes the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of each health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders like autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, and transplant rejection and the physical, chemical, and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. Immunology has applications in varied disciplines of medicine, particularly in the fields of organ transplantation, oncology, rheumatology, virology, bacteriology, parasitology, psychiatry, and dermatology.
Cancer is that the degeneration of one kind of cell within an organism into something anarchistically powerful, and nasty. As this new cell-form uncontrollably proliferates and embeds itself during a tissue host, a tumor is born. Once tumor cells later spread, the prognosis for its victim rapidly diminishes, a process known as metastasis. Detected at an early stage, cancer is benign and solvable. However once metastases appear the challenge becomes a full new (depressingly difficult) ball-game. Research targeted on understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer, and developing diagnostics and drugs for its cure. The foremost cross-disciplinary of contemporary research areas, cancer biotechnology research involves scientists from medicine, biology, physics and engineering disciplines.
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